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Environment, Ecology and Biodiversity

Environment, Ecology and Biodiversity

  • Loyola Ignatius
  • Shiva Ignatius
  • Author: Loyola Ignatius
    • ISBN:9789356067240
    • 10 Digit ISBN:9356067244
    • Price:Rs. 425.00
    • Pages:432
    • Imprint:Pearson Education
    • Binding:Paperback
    • Status:Available

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    Environment, ecology and biodiversity is one of the important subjects of civil service examinations. Owing to the increased awareness about climate change and global warming, in the recent times, a larger percentage of questions is being asked from this subject. This book provides a holistic and comprehensive view of not only the environment but also the projects and policies formed till date to counter the destruction caused due to the unbalanced developmental processes. This book skilfully presents the diverse ways of prevention and conservation of the environment and shows the importance of sustainable development along with environmental management. It has also included some recent environmental trends which keep students updated with the present scenarios. Along with this, chapters are infused with ample diagrams, tables and flow charts to make concepts interactive and easy to understand.

    Table of Content

    1. Man and Environment • Components of Environment • Factors of Environment • Humans as an integral part of the Environment • Gender and Environment Nexus 2. Mitigation and conservation Strategies, acts, policies etc. to Safeguard the Environment (National and Global) • Acts, Rules, Policies, conventions, protocols etc. Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986 National Environment Policy, 2006 National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 • Initiatives/Measures Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Revamped ENVIS Scheme Green Skill Development Program (GSDP) Communitydriven Environmentally Sustainable Village Programme (CESVP) Eco Mark Ecologically Important Festival Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE) "Clean Up the World" campaign Global Environment Facility (GEF) Earth hour Billion acts of green Ecotourism Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) Green GDP & Green GNP Environment Fund • Bodies/ Institutions to mitigate Environmental Problems (National and Global) United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) Green Benches Green peace D. Census, Surveys and Reports • Green Growth Index • Environmental Performance Index (EPI) II. Environmental Ecology and Ecosystem 3. Ecology Introduction • Ecosystem • Ecosystem interactions - Relationship among organisms • Ecosystem Interactions types 4. Ecosystem Ecology • Energy flow • Food chain • Food Web • Ecological Pyramids • Hydrological Cycle • Biogeo chemical Cycles Carbon Cycle Oxygen Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Sulphur Cycle Phosphorous cycle • Ecological Succession 5A. Ecosystem classification - Part I Terrestrial (Forests) • Classification of Ecosystem • Forest Ecosystem Types of Forest Threats faced by Forest Ecosystem Functions of Forest Ecosystem • Forest Conservation • Acts, Rules, Policies, conventions, protocols etc. Indian Forest Act, 1927 Forest Conservation Act, 1980 National Forest Policy, 1988 Forest Rights Act, 2006 Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act, 2016 • Initiatives/Measures UNREDD, UNREDD+ and CBR+ Social Forestry Urban & Periurban Forestry Sustainable urban and periurban forestry (SUPF) Rural Forestry - agro forestry & Community Forestry Farm Forestry Tree city of the world • Bodies/ Institutions (National and Global) to conserve these Ecosystem Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) International Arrangement of Forests (IAF) United Nations Forum on Forest (UNFF) The Collaborative Partnership on Forests (CPF) UNFF Global Forest Financing Facilitation Network (GFFFN) UN Strategic Plan for Forests 20172030 New York declaration on Forests The Glasgow COP26 Declaration on Forests and Land use Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE) Food & Agriculture organization (FAO) and Forestry • Census, Surveys and Reports Forest Survey 2021 5B. Ecosystem Classification - Part II Terrestrial (Others) • Grassland Ecosystem Types of Grasslands Ecological Services provided by Grasslands Threats faced by Grasslands • Desert Ecosystem Indian Deserts - its location, characteristics, flora and fauna etc Threats faced by Deserts Ecological Services provided by Deserts The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) DDD2022 Great Green Wall Initiative 6. Ecosystem Classification Part II (Aquatic & Cropland) Aquatic Freshwater (Lotic & Lentic) • Rivers • Pond & Lake Aquatic - Marine • Estuaries • Mangroves Mangrove cell Mangrove and Marine Biodiversity Conservation Foundation Magical Mangrove Campaign Mangroves for the Future (MFF) Initiative • Coral Reefs International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) Global Fund for Coral Reef (GFCR) Coral Research Development Platform (CORDAP) Global Coral Reef Alliance (GCRA) • Sea grass Both (Freshwater/Saltwater) • Wetland Types of Wetlands Ramsar Convention on Wetlands Wetland (conservation and Management) Rules, 2017 National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Ecosystems (NPCA) Centre for Wetland Conservation and Management (CWCM) Wetland International International Waterbird Census (IWC) Artificial (Manmade/Man - Engineered) Ecosystem • Cropland Ecosystem • Ecosystem Productivity 7. Ecological Adaptations • Adaptations found in Plant groups • Adaptations found in Animal groups • Insectivorous/ Carnivorous plants • Carnivorous/ Predatory Fungi • Adapted Body Parts III. Biodiversity 8. Biodiversity of India • Biodiversity • Levels of biodiversity • Whittaker's Classification of Kingdom • Plant Diversity • Animal Diversity • Plants and Animals found naturally in India 9. Biodiversity Conservation Part I - Acts, policies & Conventions (National & International) • UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) • Cartagena Protocol • Nagoya Protocol • The Biological Diversity Act, 2002 • Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) or the Bonn Convention • The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) • The World Heritage Convention • The Wildlife Protection Act (WPA), 1972 10. Biodiversity Conservation Part II - Institutions & Organisations (National & International) • World Wildlife Fund/ Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF) • Trade Records Analysis of Flora and Fauna in Commerce (TRAFFIC) • The Intergovernmental SciencePolicy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) • Wildlife Trust of India (WTI) • Wildlife Institute of India (WII) • Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) • Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB) • National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) • Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) • National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) • Botanical Survey of India (BSI) • Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) • Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) • Birdlife International • Conservation International • Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS) • International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) India & IUCN Red list Project Cheetah Project Crocodile Project Great Indian Bustard Action Plan for Vulture Conservation Project Tiger Project Elephant Monitoring of Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE) program Hathi Mere Sathi Gaj Yatra Campaign Plan Bee Project Lion Project Snow Leopard The Global Snow Leopard & Ecosystem Protection Program (GSLEP) The SECURE Himalaya project Project Rhino 11. Biodiversity Conservation Part III - Other Initiatives/Measures (National & International) • The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) • The Coalition against Wildlife Trafficking (CAWT) • The Biodiversity Finance Initiative (BIOFIN) • Endangered Species recovery Programme • The National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem (NMSHE) • Ganga Prahari - Guardians of the Ganga • Protected Areas National Parks Wildlife Sanctuaries Marine Protected Areas Community reserves Conservation reserves • Sites of Conservation Importance Biosphere Reserves MAB Programme World Network of Biosphere Reserves National Biosphere Reserve Programme Tiger Reserves Elephant Reserves Biodiversity hotspots Important Coastal and Marine Biodiversity Areas (ICMBAs) Important Bird Areas (IBAs) Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) Botanical Gardens Zoological garden • EcoSensitive Zones (ESZs) • Marine Ecoregions of the World (MEOW) • Other Effective Area - based Conservation Measures site (OECM) site • Census Tiger Census Leopard Census Elephant Census IV. Environmental Issues & Degradation 12A. Environmental Issues Pollution • Air/Atmospheric pollution • Water Pollution • Marine Pollution • Soil Pollution • Noise Pollution • Ewaste pollution 12B. Environmental Issues Global • Climate Change • Green House Gases (GHGs) • Global Warming • Ozone Hole • Acid deposition - Acid rain • Ocean Acidification 13. Environmental Issues - Mitigation & Prevention Acts, Rules, Policies, conventions, protocols etc. • Stockholm Convention • Rotterdam Convention • Basel Convention • Vienna Convention • Montreal Protocol • Geneva Protocol • Kyoto Protocol • Aarhus Protocol • Gothenburg Protocol • Minamata Convention • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) • The Water (prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1974 • Ewaste Management and handling Rules, 2016 • The Hazardous and Other Wastes (Management and Transboundary Movement) Rules, 2016 • Plastic Waste Management (PWM) Amendment Rules, 2021 Bodies/ Institutions to mitigate pollution Problems (National and Global) • International Union of Air Pollution Prevention and Environmental Protection Associations (IUAPPA) • Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) • Water and Climate Coalition • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Initiatives/Measures • The Global Climate Change Alliance plus (GCCA+) • Common Carbon Metric • The International Partnership for Blue Carbon (the IPBC) • The Blue Carbon Initiative • Momentum for change: Climate Neutral Now • Greenhouse Gas Protocol • Ecosystembased adaptation (EbA) • National Air Monitoring Programme (NAMP) • National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWMP) • National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) • National Mission for a Green India (GIM) • Green Climate Fund (GCF) • Climate Investment Fund (CIF) • Adaptation fund (AF) • Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) • Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) • BioCarbon Fund Census, Surveys and Reports • BSEGREENEX • National Air Quality Index (NAQI) • Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) V. Agriculture and Energy - S&T for Environment 14. Agriculture & Environment - Issues & Mitigation strategies • Issues associated with Improper agricultural practices • Some agricultural Practices - uses & its impact • Conventional Farming • Sustainable Agricultural Practices Organic Farming National Programme in Organic Production (NPOP) Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) Traditional Agriculture Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS) Conservation Agriculture (CA) No - Till Farming Climate smart Agriculture (CSA) Global Alliance for Climate Smart Agriculture (GACSA) Climate change, Agriculture and Food security (CCAFS) Permaculture Farming Terrace Farming/Cultivation Mixed Farming Integrated Farming System (IFS) • Use of Certain Products/methods in farming • Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) • The Soil Health Card Scheme (SHC) • Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) • Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY) • Agrobiodiversity Hotspots 15. S&T for Environment • Problems associated with fossil fuel usage • Alternate fuels Solar Energy International Solar Alliance (ISA) National Solar Mission (NSM) Solar Parks Scheme Wind Energy Biofuels National Policy on biofuels Hydrogen Enriched Compressed (HCNG) Biomass gasification • National Clean Energy Fund • Bio agriproducts / Bioagri inputs Bio fertilizers Biopesticides Bioasphalt Biobitumen • Biotoilets • Bioremediation & Phytoremediation • World Energy Trilemma Index (WETI) • World Energy Transition Index (ETI) • State Energy and Climate Index (SECI) VI. Sustainable Development & Environmental Management and Impact Assessment 16. Environmental Management • Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) • Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) • Environmental Auditing (EA) • CostBenefitAnalysis (CBA) • Environmental Management Systems (EMS) • Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) • Environmental Design (ED) 17. Sustainable Development and Environment • History of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Agenda 21 Health and Environment Linkages Initiative (HELI) Healthy Environments for Children Alliance (HECA) Rio+20 conference & SDG • Environmental Sustainability • United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UNHabitat) • SDG Goal 12 Sustainable Consumption The concept of sustainable Consumption and production (SCP) Greendex The Sustainable Public Procurement (SPP) One Planet Programme SWITCH initiatives The UNICEF Procedure on Sustainable Procurement • Waste reductions through 3R • Sustainable Electronics Recycling International (SERI) Environment and Development • UN Human settlement Programme (UNHABITAT) • The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (RIO • Environmentally Sustainable Consumption VII. New Environmental Trends 18. Environmental Ethics • Environmental Ethics • Ethics and Climate Change • Ethics of Wildlife Management & Conservation Miscellaneous Appendix I: Green Calendar Appendix II: Reports related to Environment Appendix III: Important Lakes in India Appendix IV: Ramsar Sites Appendix V: Important National Parks Appendix VI: Biosphere Reserves Appendix VII: Tiger Reserves in India Appendix VIII: Elephant Reserves in India Appendix IX: Agrobiodiversity hotspots in India

    Salient Features

    Prelims questions (19962022) and solutions after every chapter Mains questions with right approach Practice questions for both prelims and mains after every chapter Text interspersed with FYI and Do You Know? Unit on Appendices include Green Calendar, Environmental Reports, Ramsar Sites, Biosphere Reserves, Tiger Reserves in India, Elephant Reserves in India and Agrobiodiversity Hotspots in India